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The Rife Machine Report

Chapter #17

The "Skin Effect" Myth

Skin Effect

So the reader can understand what the “Skin Effect” really is we will give the scientific definition as explained by modern science. We quote:

SKIN EFFECT: “Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor. The electric current flows mainly at the "skin" of the conductor, between the outer surface and a level called the skin depth. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller, thus reducing the effective cross-section of the conductor. The skin effect is due to opposing eddy currents induced by the changing magnetic field resulting from the alternating current. At 60 Hz in copper, the skin depth is about 8.5 mm. At high frequencies the skin depth becomes much smaller. Increased AC resistance due to the skin effect can be mitigated by using specially woven litz wire. Because the interior of a large conductor carries so little of the current, tubular conductors such as pipe can be used to save weight and cost.”

Anyone who carefully reads this scientific description can see that the “Skin Effect” deals with how electricity flows mostly near the outer surface of a solid electrical conductor, such as a metal wire. You will notice that this definition does not discuss any human skin or tissue. This is due to the fact that the human body is not made of conductive metal like a copper wire. It is also not a faraday cage. A faraday cage is made of metal and can keep frequencies from getting out or getting in depending on how it is used. Only if human skin was conductive metal would the “Skin Effect” apply to it. People are reading this definition and when they see the word “Skin Effect” they believe that this scientific definition is referring to human skin. Because of this they have misunderstood the true definition of the “Skin Effect” and how it only applies to a metal conductor. Yet, people misquote this definition and use it to describe how electrical current affects human skin including biological tissue.

Today those who misquote the "Skin Effect" generally heard about it by word of mouth from someone else. This incorrect understanding just keeps getting spread because people tend to believe what they are told rather than checking out the science for themselves. These misinformed people do not understand that scientific studies called “Bio-electrical impedancemetry" or "Bio-electrical lmpedance Analysis” tests have been done which show how electrical frequencies travel through human skin or tissue. These tests scientifically prove that the “Skin Effect” of a metal wire does not apply to human or animal skin or tissue within the frequency ranges Dr. Rife used. In fact it does not pertain to frequency ranges that are much higher than those used by Dr. Rife.

Because of this misunderstanding there has been a great deal of debate as to whether Dr. Rife's frequencies can penetrate the human or animal skin via metal electrodes or hand cylinders. As far as it can be determined this "Skin Effect" myth was started by people who only believe that a plasma ray tube could deliver Dr. Rife's frequencies. In their attempt to persuade prospective customers from purchasing frequency generators, which use metal hand cylinders and footplates, they use the misinterpretation of the “Skin Effect” to try and convince people to only purchase ray tube instruments. Now it has gone a step further and there are some people who believe the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect” also applies to ray tubes also. Here are two good examples of what people are writing because they do not understand the true “Skin Effect” definition. The first quote reveals they do not understand the correct meaning of the “Skin Effect.” The second quote reveals that they believe a ray tube using an RF carrier frequency, like Dr. Rife used, will not work due to the “Skin Effect.” For this reason they only use an audio frequency for a carrier frequency. We quote:

WEBSITE: "The higher the frequency, the shallower the penetration. At frequencies above 1 MHz, skin effect will limit penetration to a fraction of an inch."

“Frequency plasma tubes with a range up to 100,000 Hz.” "The [instrument] has a basic carrier wave that is preset at about 45,000 Hz (Hertz) for the glass tube…Because of the skin effect we now preset (default) the carrier at 44660Hz. Much research has been done proving that the higher the frequency, the more the current follows the outside of the body. Thus it is referred to as the skin effect. Research is underway to determine whether above or below 1 MHz works better.”

You can see by these two quotes that the whole misunderstanding of the “Skin Effect” has gone from bad to worse. If the false and incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect” was true then Dr. Rife would have never been able to accomplish what he did in devitalizing microorganisms with frequencies. This kind of incorrect understanding defies all logic and reasonable understanding  

Because of all of this conflicting information the only way to get a correct understanding of how electrical frequencies penetrate animal or human tissue we must go to the experts in this field who have done the scientific tests which reveal the truth. In this field there have been many tests done and they are called “Bio-electrical impedancemetry or Bio-electrical impedance Analysis (B.I.A.).” The reader can look these tests up on the internet. They are somewhat difficult to understand if you do not have a good understanding of how electricity works. But they all confirm the fact that frequencies will pass through human skin and travel deep into the body with the use of metal electrodes or pads if the proper methods are used. What these scientific tests do prove is there is no such thing as the metal conductor “Skin Effect” when it comes to Human Skin or tissue. These tests are quite lengthy and we cannot include all of them here in this chapter but we are providing the link below to one such scientific “Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis” report which will only take 10 or 15 minutes to read. This scientific report has simple explanations given at the end of each section, in layman’s terms, describing how frequencies penetrate biological tissue.

These simple explanations are in blue type and explain to the reader the meaning of what has been discussed in that section. This scientific report also has many descriptive diagrams showing how frequencies move through biological tissue such as human skin. We do not ask you to take our word for it but click here and read this scientific report:

“The Skin Effect and Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis

This report should be read when reading this chapter. Understanding how frequencies go through biological tissue is the foundation of understanding how Dr. Rife accomplished his discoveries on devitalizing microorganisms. Without this foundation you can be mislead by the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect.

We will assume that the reader took the time to read this report. In simple terms this report shows that the incorrect description of the “Skin Effect” is scientifically untrue and that the body is not a faraday cage. These scientific reports show there are limits to frequency penetration depending on whether a low frequency (5,000 Hertz) is used or a high frequency (1,000,000 Hertz or 1 MHz) is used. These limits only apply to human cell penetration not skin penetration. These reports show that low frequencies will enter the body but only go through the connective tissue around the cells. Where high frequencies will enter the body and go through the connective tissue and even penetrate the cells of the body. These reports show why it is necessary to use an RF or radio carrier frequency of at least 1 million Hertz or 1 MHz when using low audio frequencies for full cell penetration. Audio frequencies are generally considered to be from 1 Hertz to about 50,000 Hertz. But 50,000 to 100,000 Hertz is not considered to be in the broadcast band so this range up to about 500,000 Hertz should still be used with an RF carrier frequency for full cell penetration.

In another scientific paper entitled “Absorption of RF Radiation” which was published by Harvard for their education courses we quote the following:

“Penetration depth is defined as the distance in which the power density decreases by a factor of e^-2 (13.5 percent), and is a function of frequency and tissue properties. At higher frequencies, fields penetrate much less than at lower frequencies. For example, at 2.45 GHz (microwave oven frequency), penetration depth in tissue is about 2.0 cm, while at 10 GHz, it is about 0.4 cm. At higher frequencies, any heating that occurs is primarily surface heating. Penetration depth for fat and bone is nearly five times greater than for higher-water-content tissues. At frequencies between 300 and 3000 MHz, electromagnetic energy can penetrate into more deeply situated tissues, making it especially desirable for therapeutic applications.

The frequency of maximal absorption is called the resonance frequency (for humans it is between 70 and 100 MHz), and depends on orientation with respect to the incident field. In general, the rule is that the shorter the subject, the higher the resonance frequency, and vice versa.”

(Harvard report: Absorption of RF Radiation link).

From this quote we find that you have to get into the Gigahertz range of frequencies to have a true “Skin Effect” with human skin and tissue. So frequencies do not travel on the surface of the human skin as people promoting the incorrect “Skin Effect” myth have claimed. We find from this report that even at the 300 to 3000 MHz range the frequencies will penetrate into more deeply situated tissues especially desirable for therapeutic applications. Last of all we find that frequencies between 70 and 100 MHz (70 to 100 million Hertz) are of maximum absorption in humans. These scientific reports completely dispel this “Skin Effect” myth. 

Dr. Rife worked with frequencies from the audio range up to about 18 MHz or 18 million Hertz. This range of frequencies is very low compared to the 70 to 3000 MHz range. These reports show that there is no “Skin Effect” in any of these ranges especially below 100 MHz. These reports clearly show that the “Skin Effect” which is being promoted and taught by many connected to Rife technology is not correct.

After you have read both of these reports you will find the real question that should be considered is: What is the Cell Effect? These scientific reports confirm that frequencies do pass through the human skin into the tissue of the body, using electrodes, as long as the proper methods are used. We also find that there is no “Skin Effect” with ray tube either. Hopefully this information will help overcome all the false and incorrect information that is being promoted as the “Skin Effect”.

Chapter Summary: The current understanding of the “Skin Effect” as it relates to human skin or tissue is not correct. Whether frequencies come from a ray tube or metal hand cylinders they penetrate the skin and enter the tissue of the body even up to 70 to 3000 MHz. Low audio frequencies up to about 500,000 Hertz should be used with a carrier frequency of at least 1 MHz or full cell penetration will not be achieved.