Three original Rife Machines have been found. Find out how they really worked by reading:
The Rife Machine Report
The Rife Machine Report
Conduction and Induction
The information in this chapter is directly connected to Chapter 17 and Chapter 1. In the last chapter we showed that the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect” is scientifically false with frequencies from 1 MHz up to at least the 3000 MHz range. We also read from the scientific reports that frequencies will go through the skin deep into the tissue of the body in all the frequency ranges that Dr. Rife used. With these facts having been proven, we can now understand how “Conduction” and “Induction” work when using Dr. Rife’s frequencies. Dr. Rife and his two 1950’s business partners, John Crane and John Marsh, used two methods of delivering frequencies. The first is the direct “Conduction” or contact method which used metal hand held electrodes with a positive and negative. The second is induced “Induction” which used an RF plasma ray tube. We will discuss the “Conduction” method first. From the encyclopedia we obtain the definition of conduction. We quote:
DEFINITION: “Conduction in science is when energy moves from one place to another place. Heat and electricity are two kinds of energy that move by conduction. Something that energy can easily move through is a good conductor. Metal is a good conductor. An insulator is a bad conductor. Energy cannot move quickly through an insulator. Plastics are one kind of insulator.”
In easy to understand terms “Conduction” is the movement of energy or electricity through a good conductor such as metal. All electromagnetic frequencies are electricity. You cannot have one without the other. Some people state that electromagnetic frequencies are just “Plain old electricity.” They do not understand the science behind electromagnetic frequencies. All frequencies are electrical but it is the cycles per second that change in frequencies. Whether you use 1 Hertz or 1,000,000 Hertz they are all electromagnetic frequencies which use electricity. So the use of the words “Plain old electricity” is incorrect when it comes to understanding the science of electromagnetic frequencies.
We learn from the "Conduction" definition that plastic or even glass is a poor conductor and acts as an insulator. The reader needs to keep in mind the fact that glass and plastic are poor conductors when using the “Conduction” or contact method of delivering frequencies through a positive and a negative connection using metal hand cylinders or electrodes. For this reason electrical wire has rubber or flexible plastic coatings to keep us from being electrocuted. If the “Skin Effect” worked like some people claim then no one would ever be electrocuted because the electrical frequency of 120 volts at 60 Hertz (60 Hertz is the frequency of our wall sockets) would never penetrate more than a fraction of an inch and kill someone. When we think of "Conduction" and metal hand cylinders or electrodes we think of a positive and negative.
Everyone understands that if you touch both the positive and the negative at the same time you will receive an electrical shock. This is because your body is directly coupled and completes the circuit by touching both the positive and negative at the same time. This is "Conduction" in plain and simple terms. The same thing will happen if you touch both wires coming out of an electrical socket. If they are bare then the body completes the circuit and 120 volts and amps will enter your body which may kill you. The fact that electricity when used with too much current can kill demonstrates that frequencies do penetrate the skin deep into biological tissue. So the "Conduction" or contact method using a metal conductor is a good method of getting electrical frequencies into biological tissue but the current must be limited so that it is safe to use. The majority of the people who purchase frequency generators purchase some kind of hand held metal or stick-on electrodes. The main reason metal hand cylinders or electrodes are use is due to the fact that they will deliver 100% of the electrical frequencies to the user. Whatever power level the circuit puts out will be the same power lever delivered to the electrodes. In this chapter to describe “Conduction” we may say metal electrodes or metal hand cylinders so you will understand what we are talking about.
Now we come to the second method of delivering electromagnetic frequencies called induced “Induction” or the non-metal contact method. This method of delivering frequencies can use a single plasma ray tube or two hand held ray tubes. In the case of two hand held ray tubes it delivers most of power by “Induction” because you are using an insulator such as glass. When we describe “Induction” we will say plasma ray tube. From the encyclopedia we obtain the definition of “Induction.” We quote:
DEFINITION: "Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as mutual-inductively coupled or magnetically coupled when they are configured such that change in current flow through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction. The amount of inductive coupling between two conductors is measured by their mutual inductance.
Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in the conductor which produces the fields and to the frequency. The higher the frequency the more intense the induction effect. The coupling between two wires can be increased by winding them into coils and placing them close together on a common axis, so the magnetic field of one coil passes through the other coil. The two coils may be physically contained in a single unit, as in the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, or may be separated."
In simple terms electrical frequencies can go through plastic or glass by “Induction” if the proper method is used. From the above definition we learn that the higher the frequency the more intense the "Induction" effect. We also learn conductors such as two insulated wires need to be close together in order for the electromagnetic “Induction” to work with full transfer of the electromagnetic energy. The fact that the conductors must be close together when using this method is very important for the transfer of the frequencies.
There are some companies that use a single ray tube and others that use two hand held plasma ray tubes. Those that use a single ray tube use a single independent circuit for the ray tube. Those that use hand held ray tubes generally use two separate circuits, one for each ray tube. The person holds a ray tube in each hand and receives the frequencies mostly by “Induction” or the radiant method of delivering frequencies. By this method of “Induction” the frequencies enter the body. This is how Dr. Rife’s original 1930’s/1950’s RF plasma ray tube instruments also worked.
Dr. Rife used this “Induction” method with his powerful 50 to 100 watt ray tube instruments. But it should be understand that with Dr. Rife's ray tube instrument the user was not directly coupled to the circuit. This is not how his ray tube circuit worked. In order to directly couple with a circuit with 100% of the power delivered to the user you must have a direct physical connection with metal conductors that act as a positive and negative. Ray tubes do not work on this scientific principle.
The reader needs to understand that with the use of 30 watt hand held ray tubes which come in contact with the user there is a certain amount coupling through "Conduction" that does take place. But the 30 watts does not directly couple to the body as with a metal positive and a negative. Most of the energy is coupled to the body by the non-contact method of "Induction." In the scientific paper “Absorption of RF Radiation” put out by Harvard education courses we find it is very difficult to determine how much energy actually couples to the body by the “Induction” method. They state the following. We quote:
HARVARD: “The magnetic permeability of most tissues is practically equal to that of free space, meaning that tissue is essentially nonmagnetic. Interactions at high radiofrequencies occur through the electric field, which therefore describes the exposure field interactions with the tissue. Frequency characteristics, modulation characteristics, and modulation frequency of the external field are also important in determining interactions with tissue.
A radio wave in space is characterized by its frequency, intensity of electric and magnetic fields, direction, and polarization. The interaction of external radio waves with biological bodies produces internal electric and magnetic fields, which can be calculated by solving Maxwell's equations for the given boundary conditions. This becomes a complex problem, however, because biological bodies are heterogeneous and complex in shape, making an exact solution impossible. In addition, the intensity of the internal field is greatly dependent on the boundary conditions under which the external field is applied. The frequency, intensity, and polarization of the field, in addition to the size, shape, dielectric properties of the exposed body, the spatial configuration of the exposure source and the body, and the presence of other objects in the vicinity, play a big role in the effect the radio waves will have on the body. For this reason, the internal field created in a mouse under a given external field will be much different than the internal field created in a man under the same external field.
We are interested in how external fields couple with biological bodies to create internal fields. The field strength inside a cell nucleus, for example, would be needed to judge any effects on genetic information. Likewise, the field strength across the cell membrane would be needed to evaluate possible membrane excitation phenomena. So we must first be able to figure out the field strength inside the human body and then how this is related to membrane potentials etc.
Internal field strength increases proportionally with the external field strength, but the internal field is not necessarily uniform even if the incident field is uniform.
Exact field strength is dependent on local geometry: in a man standing in a field perpendicular to the ground, the average current density in the legs is greater than in the trunk, by a factor that corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the trunk and leg. Absorbed energy depends on the size of the body, curvature of its surface, ratio of body size to wavelength, and the source characteristics."
From this quote we can see that it is very difficult to know exactly how much RF energy couples to the body with the non-contact “Induction” method. Another thing that is pointed out is the body is nonmagnetic. Dr. Rife started with 8 to 10 watts and finally built his Rife Ray #3 instrument which output about 50 watts. That instrument was used in the 1934 clinic. These instruments were tested for penetration so it is apparent that less than 50 watts would not be sufficient power to devitalize microorganism deep into the tissues of the body. Dr. Rife’s Rife Ray #4 was built in 1935 and could output about 400 watts. The Rife Ray #5 was built in 1936 and it was reduced back to about 50 watts output. This indicates that 50 watts seems to be enough power to devitalize the microorganisms in the body of anyone that was treated with the instrument. With 50 watts as our measuring stick a person would not expect an RF ray tube instrument that did not output at least 50 watts to be powerful enough to do what Dr. Rife’s instruments were capable of doing.
If you measure how much energy couples to the body through direct contact from holding a single ray tube in your hands it will be about 8%. We tested a single 106 watt ray tube instrument to determine how much energy would couple to the body from direct contact. We found that the body must be connected to a ground plate to effectively couple the energy to the body through holding the ray tube in your hands. If a ground plate is not used you will only get about 2.66% that will “Inductively” coupled to the body. The test was done with a 106 watt RF single ray tube instrument. When the person held the ray tube in their hands the milliamp meter dropped by 15 milliamps which indicates how much power or watts coupled to the body through “Conduction.” This was an 8% drop in power. This indicated that 8% or 8.48 watts of the 106 watts was directly coupled to the body through direct contact with the ray tube. We also measured the voltage on the glass surface of the ray tube. Because metal hand cylinders are often used with wet terry cloth covers we also used a wet terry cloth put on the surface of the single glass ray tube for greater conductivity. The voltage to the ray tube was 1,370 volts. The voltage on the surface of the ray tube dropped to 269 volts. This test demonstrates how the glass of a ray tube is also an insulator which limits the amount of power that will couple to the body by "Conduction" or direct contact when holding a ray tube in your hands. The glass which is an insulator protects a person from being directly coupled to the voltage and current. This is why ray tubes are safe to use when using high power output in the 50 to 100 watt range.
What must be understood is the the insulating non-conductive properties of the glass that the ray tube is made of will only allow approximately 8% of the energy to couple or enter the body through direct contact with the skin. The remaining 92% of the power output by the ray tube is only partially absorbed into the body through the “Induction” non-contact method which is determined and governed by the “Inverse Square Law” of how close the ray tube is to the body of the user. We will discuss this scientific law later in this chapter.
There are at least 3 companies that build hand held ray tube instruments that output about 30 watts of power. But it should be understood that 30 watts of energy is not what is electromagnetically coupled into the body from holding the hand held ray tubes.
It should also be pointed out that some of the hand held ray tube instruments use a differential output which makes them work different than a single ray tube instrument. This differential method makes it so the ray tubes are attracted to each other like magnets which constantly change polarity. When one ray tube is + (On) the other ray tube is - (Off) constantly reversing polarity over and over again. This results in an intense field between the two hand held ray tubes. This method was also tested and it was verified that it does increase the coupling with the body. By using this method the coupling increased from 8% to 25%. With a 30 watt instrument this means 25% or 7.5 watts is coupled to the body through direct contact with the hand held glass ray tubes. Clearly 25% is better than 8% and shows that the reversing polarity method works very well by tripling the amount of energy that couples with the body through "Conduction" or direct contact of the two hand held ray tubes with the body. But it also must be understood that using this method still does not directly couple 100% or 30 watts of the energy to the body like a positive and a negative.
The fact is the 30 watts of energy output by the two hand held ray tubes is not transferred into the body of the user because they are not directly coupled to the circuit with a metal conductor. What additional energy above the 25% or 7.5 watts that penetrates into the body does it by the radiant method of "Induction." The only way that more energy can be put into the body is to increase the power output of the ray tubes.
Now some of these hand held ray tube companies believe that because glass is a dielectric that 100% of the power will couple to the body of the user if the reversing polarity method is used. You will see statements such as this one. We quote:
WEBSITE: "Hand held ray tubes use Conduction, Induction, and Radiation however, the main method is Conduction... Holding hand held ray tubes are completing the circuit through your body allowing the FULL POWER of the ray tube circuit to flow through the tubes and then through you.
You are wondering how electricity goes through glass. Wikipedia says this. "The glass acts as a dielectric in a capacitor formed between the ionized gas and the hand." "Most of the energy of ray tubes is transmitted by Conduction, which is why you hold them in your hands. Yes, glass is an insulator, but at high frequencies, electricity passes through it because its dielectric characteristics change." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plasma_globe
From these combined quotes it is implied that the FULL POWER of the hand held ray tubes couple through "Conduction" to the user and that energy flows through the body as though the glass ray tubes have the same conductivity as a metal conductor. It is stated that this is due to the fact that the glass of a ray tube acts as a dielectric in a capacitor.
If we look at these statements we find that they are not entirely correct. If the Full Power of the ray tubes actually transferred through the glass then the full 30 watts of energy would also enter your body. When measured with an oscilloscope the combined voltage output of the hand held ray tube circuits was 3,150 volts. If that amount of voltage transferred through the glass ray tubes it would be dangerous to be directly coupled to it and the person holding them would receive RF burns. Logically there is no possible way that the FULL POWER and voltage of the hand held ray tubes ever couples to the body. If the voltage and current does not couple then you are not getting the FULL POWER that the hand held ray tubes are putting out. The fact is nobody in their right mind would be willing to hook up metal hand cylinders to 3,150 volts at 30 watts. It is a scientific fact that the glass of the hand held ray tubes are a dielectric but we need to understand how a dielectric really works. From Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dielectric we obtain the definition of a dielectric. We quote:
WIKIPEDIA: “A dielectric material (dielectric for short) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric charges DO NOT flow through the material as they do in a CONDUCTOR, but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced toward the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction. This creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric itself...The study of dielectric properties concerns storage and dissipation of electric and magnetic energy in materials.”
In the above definition we learn that a dielectric is an insulator such as the glass the hand held ray tubes are made from. We also learn that it does not allow the electrical charges to flow through the material as they do in a metal conductor. Again from the Wikipedia encyclopedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_conductor we obtain the definition of a Conductor. We quote:
WIKIPEDIA: “In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material which permits the flow of electric charges in one or more directions. For example, a wire is an electrical conductor that can carry electricity along its length.
From both of these definitions we find that a dielectric such as glass does not have the conductive properties that will allow electricity to flow through it in the same manner as a metal conductor will. This means that even though glass does allow a certain amount of "Conduction" to take place it will not allow the FULL POWER of 30 watts to transfer through it as implied. Glass is a dielectric and also an insulator. It is clear from the reading of these scientific statements that the main method used with the hand held ray tubes is not "Conduction" as implied in the above statement. If the main method is not "Conduction" then the only thing left is "Induction" or the radiant method. Because of this it is not possible for the 30 watts of energy to complete the circuit through your body allowing the FULL POWER of the ray tube circuit to flow through the tubes and then through the user completing the circuit.
A simple test was done that shows how the glass is a dielectric and also an insulator. The circuit of one of these hand held ray tube instruments was measured using an oscilloscope. The combined voltage to the two ray tubes was 3,150 volts. Wet terry cloth covers were put on both ray tubes so that there would be good conductivity. Then the negative probe was put on one ray tube and the positive probe put on the other. The combined voltage coming off the glass surface was 1,480 volts. This was a 53.38% power drop. This test demonstrates that even though glass is a dielectric is also an insulator. The fact that the reversing polarity method increased the combined voltage on the surface the glass ray tubes to 1,480 volts clearly shows how well this method works. But you would not want to use this method with 50 watts because the voltage would become so high that you probably would get RF burns by just touching the glass ray tubes.
Now the length of the glass for each ray tube is about 8 inches so the power output is broadcast out of the complete length of each ray tube. The average hand is about 4 inches wide and will wrap around the complete ray tube. And if we take into consideration that about 53.38% the conductivity is lost because of the insulating properties of the glass and we add to that 53.38% loss the fact that about 50% of each ray tube only comes into contact with hands of the user this indicates that about 75% or 22.5 watts of the power is not directly coupled to the body by "Conduction." It is apparent from these measurements that 75% of the energy output by the two hand held ray tubes is governed by the non-contact method of "Induction" and not the contact method of “Conduction.”
It is evident that some of the hand held ray tube assumptions are based on unverified information. They should have read a little more about how a dielectric works rather than assuming that it works exactly like a metal conductor. It appears that no one has measured how much power would couple or conduct through “Conduction” into the body of the user when they hold the glass ray tubes in their hands. To find out how much power actually conducts through the glass some simple tests can be done.
It should be understood that if a person was directly coupled with a metal conductor to the circuit with 30 watts of energy they would received RF burns. Dr. Rife used the ray tube method because it was safe to use next to people or animals. He also used instruments that were 50 to 100 watts and if someone touched a metal antenna with this amount of power they would receive instant third degree RF burns. For this reason you would never want to be directly coupled to a ray tube instrument. What most people do not understand is that plasma ray tubes that work on "Induction" are governed by the “Inverse Square Law.” This is the radiant method of “Induction.” We will now quote the definition of this law of physics:
DEFINITION: "Any point source which spreads its influence equally in all directions without a limit to its range will obey the inverse square law. This comes from strictly geometrical considerations. The intensity of the influence at any given radius is the source strength divided by the area of the sphere. Being strictly geometric in its origin, the inverse square law applies to diverse phenomena. Point sources of gravitational force, electric field, light, sound or radiation obey the inverse square law."
This law deals with power loss and distance. We will give a simple explanation which should make it so the reader can understand how this law works. If we use 30 watts as an example this is what happens to the power output. At one foot away from the ray tube you would only have 7.5 watts of RF radiant power. At two feet you only have 1.875 watts and at 3 feet you only have 0.468 of one watt of penetrating power from the hand held ray tubes. You can see that the power drops off very quickly when using the "Induction" method of delivering frequencies into the body with a ray tube.
Because of this law of physics it is easy to see that whatever power level is output by the ray tube will never be coupled to the body by “Induction.” What must be considered is there is significant power loss using this method that must be overcome by using more power. Another factor of power loss that also needs to be understood is the energy coming out of the ray tubes is being radiated out in a 360 degree radius. So even if the ray tube is kept close there is significant power loss that must be taken into consideration.
Dr. Rife’s 1930’s/1950’s equipment output 50 to 100 watts from the plasma ray tube. Let’s compare his power loss to 30 watts. At one foot away from the 50 watt ray tube Dr. Rife had 12.5 watts of radiant power. At two feet he had only 3.125 watts and at 3 feet he only had about 0.78 of one watt. Anyone reading this can understand that the laws of physics are important to understand when understanding power loss with ray tubes. No matter what anyone may think the law of physics applies to ray tubes. And regardless of what may be claimed when you use the no contact "Induction" method of delivering frequencies to the body it does not work the same as having a direct physical connection to the positive and negative terminals. The energy or frequencies are radiated out from the ray tubes and enter the body without directly coupling with the person using them.
Once it is understood how the science of “Induction” really works one can understand the limits of this method unless you use the power levels of Dr. Rife’s 1930/1950’s equipment which used 50 to 100 watts. At the lower power levels of 30 watts a ray tube would be greatly underpowered compared to Dr. Rife’s equipment. Though Dr. Rife used higher power levels he did not drop below about 50 watts once he initially reached it. Here is a statement taken from a website that illustrates why we need to understand how “Conduction” and “Induction” works. We quote:
WEBSITE: “Find a unit that has held tubes because they complete the circuit by running through the body between the hand held ray tubes thus guaranteeing that the frequencies flow through the body. The ray tubes produce a much higher voltage than pad devices to push the frequencies deeper into the body. There is the magnetic effect produced by the gas filled tubes that especially used with RF penetrates the body.”
If you do not understand the difference in how both methods work then you would not know that this statement is only partially correct. Because hand held ray tubes which use the reversing polarity method work only on 25% "Conduction" and 75% "Induction" all of the 30 watts would not travel through the body from one ray tube to the other. The only way that this could take place is if the ray tubes were made of metal and worked like a positive and negative. What they are actually describing is how “Conduction” or hand held metal electrodes work. They are applying the "Conduction" method which uses a positive and a negative in direct contact with the body to their plasma ray tubes which actually use mainly the "Induction" indirect radiant method. Because ray tubes are not metal there is no direct contact with 100% of the energy as with a positive and a negative metal conductor. Therefore the body is only completing the circuit with about 25% of the full power of the ray tubes. The only way the body could complete the circuit with the full 30 watts is if the ray tubes were made of metal. But then you would be directly coupled by "Conduction" to the ray tubes with 30 watts of power in direct contact which may cause RF burns. The glass the ray tubes are made of will never allow you to be fully coupled to all 30 watts because it is an insulator. You would never want to directly couple a person to this much power. This is why this description misleads people into an incorrect belief of how ray tubes really work. It also misleads people as to how Dr. Rife’s 1930’s/1950’s ray tube machines worked.
This statement also implies that higher voltage pushes the frequencies deeper into the body. Actually the fact that the polarity is being reversed back a forth makes it so the electrical current from the ray tubes is working in the same manner as AC or alternating current is what pushes the frequencies through the body. The high voltage is not needed or necessary. The higher voltage is actually needed to light the plasma gas which is in the ray tubes. It takes high voltage to light the plasma gas because low voltage will not light it. Once the tubes are lit then the frequencies are penetrating the body in a 25% "Conduction" and 75% "Induction" ratio. So the frequencies are not pushed deeper into the body by the high voltage.
Because of what we have explained both of these statements are only partially correct and lead people into believing that the glass hand held ray tubes somehow work like the “Conduction” metal electrode method which uses a positive and negative in direct contact with the user delivering 100% of the energy.
When both methods of delivering frequencies are understood we find the “Conduction” method of using metal hand cylinder electrodes works better that the “Induction” method which uses hand held plasma ray tubes, up to certain power levels. The reason for this is you can put more power directly into the body using metal hand cylinders within certain power ranges. This is due to the fact that the “Conduction” method has no insulators to keep the electrical frequencies from going into the tissue of the body. Again we will point out metal hand cylinders are like touching bare electrical wires where one is positive and the other is negative. There is nothing to keep the electrical frequencies from going into the body. Because of this “Conduction" or direct contact method more power is transferred into the person even though a frequency generator may be using a lot less power. What we are trying to explain is one method is direct coupling or direct contact with 100% of the electrical current and the other is indirect coupling or non-contact with the electrical current using a metal conductor.
Direct coupling “Conduction” will always work better than indirect coupling “Induction”, within certain distances and power ranges. We have been saying certain power ranges because Dr. Rife’s 1930’s/1950’s equipment used the indirect or "Induction" method with a great deal more power than 30 watts of energy. It used 50 to 100 watts of RF energy. With the “Conduction” method of using hand held metal electrodes more that 15 watts of energy would not be advisable to use in direct contact with the skin. Above this power level a person would want to use 50 to 100 watts not 30 watts because 30 watts is not enough power for the “Induction” method to work to its full capability unless you put the plasma ray tubes right on the body where the problem is located. By doing this they may work better. Because they are 30 watts holding them in your hands would not be as beneficial as claimed.
Dr. Rife fully understood the limitations of this “Induction” method and this is why he used 50 to 100 watts. At these levels then the “Induction” method of using a ray tube is superior to using hand held metal cylinders. It is all related to power output. The reader should not believe that we are pro one method over the other. Both methods work to deliver frequencies to the body but when you use either method you must have the proper power levels for the specific method used otherwise you will not get the maximum benefit.
Even though some frequency generators only output about 2 or 3 watts using metal hand cylinders they may be almost as powerful as a plasma tube with 30 watts output if you measure for the amount of energy that is coupled to the body. When using metal hand cylinders the majority of the energy is directly coupled to the person using it. Now if you move up to Dr. Rife’s 50 to 100 watt range using a ray tube it will be superior to the direct contact method because the frequencies, regardless of tissue and bone, will penetrate all the way through without the resistance of the body affecting the outcome. So understanding how “Conduction” and “Induction” works makes it easier to understand the two methods that were use by Dr. Rife, John Crane and John Marsh.
Chapter Summary: Understanding “Conduction” and “Induction” makes it possible to understand how both Ray tube and metal Hand cylinder or footplates work to deliver frequencies. “Conduction” is the direct contact or coupling method which uses metal hand cylinders which use a direct contact with a positive and negative. “Induction” is the plasma ray tube method which is not directly coupled to the body using a positive or a negative. It uses the radiant method of delivering frequencies. Both methods were used by Dr. Rife’s business partners. Dr. Rife preferred the “Induction” method which used 50 to 100 watts of RF energy output through a ray tube. His two business partners, John Crane and John Marsh, built frequency generators that used the “Conduction” method of using metal hand cylinders or disks.