Welcome

The Rife Machine Report

Chapter #18

Understanding
Conduction and Induction

Rife Pad Machine Rife Ray Tube Machine

Conduction

The information in this chapter is directly connected to Chapter 17 and Chapter 1. In the last chapter we showed that the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect” is scientifically false with frequencies from 1 MHz up to at least the 3000 MHz range. We also read from the scientific reports that frequencies will go through the skin deep into the tissue of the body in all the frequency ranges that Dr. Rife used. With these facts having been proven, we can now understand how “Conduction” and “Induction” work when using Dr. Rife’s frequencies. Dr. Rife and his two 1950’s business partners, John Crane and John Marsh, used two methods of delivering frequencies. The first is the direct “Conduction” or contact method which used metal hand held electrodes with a positive and negative. The second is induced “Induction” which used an RF plasma ray tube. We will discuss the “Conduction” method first.  From the encyclopedia we obtain the definition of conduction. We quote:

DEFINITION: “Conduction in science is when energy moves from one place to another place. Heat and electricity are two kinds of energy that move by conduction. Something that energy can easily move through is a good conductor. Metal is a good conductor. An insulator is a bad conductor. Energy cannot move quickly through an insulator. Plastics are one kind of insulator.”

In easy to understand terms “Conduction” is the movement of energy or electricity through a good conductor such as metal. All electromagnetic frequencies are electricity. You cannot have one without the other. Some people state that electromagnetic frequencies are just “Plain old electricity.” They do not understand the science behind electromagnetic frequencies. All frequencies are electrical but it is the cycles per second that change in frequencies. Whether you use 1 Hertz or 1,000,000 Hertz they are all electromagnetic frequencies which use electricity. So the use of the words “Plain old electricity” is incorrect when it comes to understanding the science of electromagnetic frequencies.

We learn from the "Conduction" definition that plastic or even glass is a poor conductor and acts as an insulator. The reader needs to keep in mind the fact that glass and plastic are poor conductors when using the “Conduction” or contact method of delivering frequencies through a positive and a negative connection using metal hand cylinders or electrodes. For this reason electrical wire has rubber or flexible plastic coatings to keep people from being electrocuted. If the “Skin Effect” worked like some people claim then no one would ever be electrocuted because the electrical frequency of 120 volts at 60 Hertz (60 Hertz is the frequency of our wall sockets) would never penetrate more than a fraction of an inch and kill someone. When we think of "Conduction" and metal hand cylinders or electrodes we think of a positive and negative.

Everyone understands that if you touch both the positive and the negative at the same time you will receive an electrical shock. This is because your body is directly coupled and completes the circuit by touching both the positive and negative at the same time. This is "Conduction" in plain and simple terms. The same thing will happen if you touch both wires coming out of an electrical socket. If they are bare then the body completes the circuit and 120 volts and amps will enter your body which may kill you. The fact that electricity when used with too much current can kill demonstrates that frequencies do penetrate the skin deep into biological tissue. So the "Conduction" or contact method using a metal conductor is a good method of getting electrical frequencies into biological tissue but the current must be limited so that it is safe to use. The majority of the people who purchase frequency generators purchase some kind of hand held metal or stick-on electrodes. The main reason metal hand cylinders or electrodes are use is due to the fact that they will deliver 100% of the electrical frequencies to the user. Whatever power level the circuit puts out will be the same power lever delivered to the electrodes. In this chapter to describe “Conduction” we may say metal electrodes or metal hand cylinders so you will understand what we are talking about.

Induction

Now we come to the second method of delivering electromagnetic frequencies called induced “Induction” or the non-metal contact method. This method of delivering frequencies can use a single plasma ray tube or two hand held ray tubes. In the case of two hand held ray tubes it delivers most of power by “Induction” because you are using an insulator such as glass. When we describe “Induction” we will say plasma ray tube. From the encyclopedia we obtain the definition of “Induction.” We quote:

DEFINITION: "Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as mutual-inductively coupled or magnetically coupled when they are configured such that change in current flow through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction. The amount of inductive coupling between two conductors is measured by their mutual inductance.

Electromagnetic induction is proportional to the intensity of the current and voltage in the conductor which produces the fields and to the frequency. The higher the frequency the more intense the induction effect. The coupling between two wires can be increased by winding them into coils and placing them close together on a common axis, so the magnetic field of one coil passes through the other coil. The two coils may be physically contained in a single unit, as in the primary and secondary sides of a transformer, or may be separated."

In simple terms electrical frequencies can go through plastic or glass by “Induction” if the proper method is used. From the above definition we learn that the higher the frequency the more intense the "Induction" effect. We also learn conductors such as two insulated wires need to be close together in order for the electromagnetic “Induction” to work with full transfer of the electromagnetic energy. The fact that the conductors must be close together when using this method is very important for the transfer of the frequencies.

There are some companies that use a single ray tube and others that use hand held plasma ray tubes. Those that use a single ray tube use a single circuit for the ray tube and the frequencies enter the body by “Induction.” Those that use hand held ray tubes generally use two separate circuits, one for each ray tube. They pulse the frequencies back and forth between the two hand held ray tubs. When one ray tube is on the other ray tube is off. This alternating back and forth between the two hand held ray tubes creates a very intense electromagnetic field. By doing this the hand held ray tubes become highly conductive and work on about 50% "Conduction" and 50% "Induction" where a standard single ray tube will only work on about 8.76% "Conduction" and 91.24% "Induction" when held in the hands of the user.

By using this method of alternating the frequencies back and forth between the two hand held ray tubes the person receives the frequencies by both “Conduction” and “Induction.” By the methods of “Conduction” and “Induction” the frequencies enter the body. Dr. Rife’s original 1930’s/1950’s RF plasma ray tube instruments only used “Induction” because the user did not hold the ray tube in their hands. To learn more about how metal hand cylinders and hand held ray tubes work click on the link below.

Metal Hand Cylinders or Hand Held Ray Tubes.

Dr. Rife used this “Induction” method with his powerful 50 to 100 watt ray tube instruments. But the user must understand that they are not directly coupled to the circuit. This is not how a single ray tube circuit works. In order to directly couple with the circuit and receive 100% of the energy you must have a direct physical connection with metal conductors that act as a positive and negative. Ray tubes do not work on this scientific principle. Though there is a small amount of coupling to the body the 50 to 100 watts does not directly couple to the body as with a metal positive and a negative. In the scientific paper “Absorption of RF Radiation” which was put out by Harvard education courses we find it is very difficult to determine how much energy actually couples to the body by the “Induction” method. They state the following. We quote:

HARVARD: “The magnetic permeability of most tissues is practically equal to that of free space, meaning that tissue is essentially nonmagnetic. Interactions at high radiofrequencies occur through the electric field, which therefore describes the exposure field interactions with the tissue. Frequency characteristics, modulation characteristics, and modulation frequency of the external field are also important in determining interactions with tissue.

A radio wave in space is characterized by its frequency, intensity of electric and magnetic fields, direction, and polarization. The interaction of external radio waves with biological bodies produces internal electric and magnetic fields, which can be calculated by solving Maxwell's equations for the given boundary conditions. This becomes a complex problem, however, because biological bodies are heterogeneous and complex in shape, making an exact solution impossible. In addition, the intensity of the internal field is greatly dependent on the boundary conditions under which the external field is applied. The frequency, intensity, and polarization of the field, in addition to the size, shape, dielectric properties of the exposed body, the spatial configuration of the exposure source and the body, and the presence of other objects in the vicinity, play a big role in the effect the radio waves will have on the body. For this reason, the internal field created in a mouse under a given external field will be much different than the internal field created in a man under the same external field.

We are interested in how external fields couple with biological bodies to create internal fields. The field strength inside a cell nucleus, for example, would be needed to judge any effects on genetic information. Likewise, the field strength across the cell membrane would be needed to evaluate possible membrane excitation phenomena. So we must first be able to figure out the field strength inside the human body and then how this is related to membrane potentials etc.

Internal field strength increases proportionally with the external field strength, but the internal field is not necessarily uniform even if the incident field is uniform.

Exact field strength is dependent on local geometry: in a man standing in a field perpendicular to the ground, the average current density in the legs is greater than in the trunk, by a factor that corresponds to the ratio of the cross sectional areas of the trunk and leg. Absorbed energy depends on the size of the body, curvature of its surface, ratio of body size to wavelength, and the source characteristics."

(Absorption of RF Radiation, Harvard report link).

From this quote we can see that it is very difficult to know exactly how much RF energy couples to the body with the non-contact “Induction” method. Another thing that is pointed out is the body is nonmagnetic. Dr. Rife started with 8 to 10 watts and finally built his Rife Ray #3 instrument that put out about 50 watts. That instrument was used in the 1934 clinic. These instruments were tested for penetration so it is apparent that less than 50 watts would not be sufficient power to devitalize microorganism deep into the tissues of the body. Dr. Rife’s Rife Ray #4 was built in 1935 and could output about 400 to 500 watts. The Rife Ray #5 was built in 1936 and it was reduced back to about 75 watts output. This indicates that 50 watts seems to be enough power to devitalize the microorganisms in the body of anyone that was treated with the instrument. With 50 watts as our measuring stick a person would not expect an RF ray tube instrument that did not output at least 50 watts to be powerful enough to do what Dr. Rife’s instruments were capable of doing. If you measure how much energy couples to the body through direct contact from holding a single ray tube in your hands it will be about 8.75% if no ground plate is used.

We decided to do a few tests. A single ray tube like the one that Dr. Rife used was tested first. We found that with a single ray tube the person had to be grounded in order to have the greatest amount of power transfer through "Conduction." Using an oscilloscope a variable 20 to 103 watt RMS circuit was measured. The voltage to the ray tube was 1370 volts at 85 watts RMS or 170 watts peak power. Several readings were taken and averaged. When the ray tube was held in both hands the average voltage dropped from 1370 volts down to 1250 volts. This was an 8.76% drop. This 8.76% voltage drop represents the minimum amount of power or energy which coupled to the body of the user through "Conduction." This 8.76 % represents 7.4 watts RMS or about 15 watts peak power. So from this test we get minimum amount of power that will couple to the body through direct contact with the ray tube.

What must be understood is the insulating less conductive properties of the glass that the ray tube is made of will only allow approximately 8.76% of the energy to couple or enter the body through direct contact with the skin. The remaining 91% of the power output by the ray tube is only partially absorbed into the body through the “Induction” non-contact method which is determined and governed by the “Inverse Square Law” of how close the ray tube is to the body of the user. We will discuss this scientific law later in this chapter.

There are several different instruments that use hand held ray tubes and their power ranges are from about 7.5 to 19 watts RMS or 15 watts to 38 watts peak power. As mentioned before the two hand held ray tube method works different than the single ray tube method. They are constantly reversing polarity over and over again. This results in an intense field between them as opposed to a single ray tube. A few of these hand held ray tube instruments were measured. The tests were done using an oscilloscope and they verify that this method of reversing polarity over and over significantly increases the energy coupling through "Conduction" or direct contact of the hand held ray tubes to the body of the user.

Every hand held ray tube had wet terry cloth covers put on them. The actual circuit voltage was first measured at the circuit before the ray tubes. The voltage was then measured by touching the oscilloscope probes to the surface of the ray tubes. One probe was place on each ray tube. By doing this we were able to measure how much the power dropped due to the insulating properties of the glass. This power drop showed how much power or voltage was on the surface of the glass conductor or ray tubes. Since it is impossible to receive more power than is on the surface of a conductor then the voltage on the surface of the ray tube determines how much power could actually couple to the body through "Conduction" or direct contact with the hand held ray tubes.

The combined voltage to the ray tubes were measured which varied due to the 7.5 to 19 watts RMS range or 15 to 38 watts peak power output by the instruments. The voltage at the circuits varied in range from about 1500 volts to 10,000 volts. When the voltage on the surface of the ray tubes was measure the voltage had dropped by an average of about 53%. This test also shows that the glass was an insulator and dropped the voltage by about 53%. So from this test we find that about 50% of the energy or watts that are put into hand held ray tubes will couple to the body by "Conduction" or direct contact with the ray tubes. This 50% represents from about 3.5 watts RMS to 8.5 watts RMS or 7.5 watts to about 19 watts peak power that is coupled to the body by "Conduction" using hand held ray tubes. This test gives us the maximum amount of energy that could couple through "Conduction" to the body of the user when holding hand held ray tubes.

The tests also showed how well the reversing polarity method works. If you compare both methods without using a ground plate then you only have about 8.76 coupling with a single ray tube compared to about 50% coupling with hand held ray tubes. That is almost 6 times more power coupling through "Conduction" than a single ray tube if no ground plate is used.

These tests show that the power transfer ratio for hand held ray tubes is about 50% through "Conduction" or direct contact with the skin of the user and 50% through "Induction" or the non-contact method governed by the "Inverse Square Law."

If you compare this 50% "Conduction" or energy transfer to an instrument that only uses metal hand cylinders then this is how they would compare. A metal hand cylinder instrument has over 50% more power that will couple to the body through "Conduction" than a hand held ray tube instrument. The fact that you have a metal conductor vs. a glass conductor is the reason for the power drop. A metal conductor will always conduct more energy than a glass conductor and this can be verified using an oscilloscope.

After we did the tests on single ray tubes and hand held ray tubes we tested metal hand cylinders. We measured a 3.1 MHz 15 watt RMS or 30 watt peak power RF amplifier using metal hand cylinders. The instrument voltage when measured with an oscilloscope was 330 volts at the circuit and 330 volts at the metal hand cylinders. Because of the direct contact with a positive and a negative 100% or 330 volts or 30 watts peak power directly coupled through "Conduction" to the body of the user instead of only about 19% with a single ray tube or about 50% with two hand held glass ray tubes. The body under these conditions becomes an antenna. To verify this we used an Elenco F-2800 1 MHz to 3 GHz hand held frequency counter to see how far the signal could be read off of the body. When the un-held hand cylinders were read the signal was only readable within a few inches of the metal hand cylinders. But when the metal hand cylinders were held by the user the 3.1 MHz carrier frequency could be read for over 12 feet from the person holding the metal hand cylinders. This verifies that the body does become an antenna.

Theses tests now give us a reasonable comparison of how much energy couples to the body through "Conduction" with a single ray tube, hand held ray tubes and metal hand cylinders.

1. With a single ray tube about 19% of the energy will couple with the body through "Conduction" from holding the ray tube in the hands as long as a ground plate is used.

2. With hand held ray tubes using the reversing polarity method about 50% of the energy will couple to the body through "Conduction" when holding the ray tubes in the hands.

3. With metal hand cylinders 100% of the energy will couple to the body through "Conduction" from holding the metal hand cylinders in the hands.

Dr. Rife used the glass ray tube method because it was less conductive and safe to use next to people or animals. He also used instruments that were 50 to 75 watts RMS (RMS equals true power) or 100 to 150 watts peak power. If someone touched a metal antenna with this amount of power they would receive instant third degree RF burns. For this reason you would never want to be directly coupled to a ray tube instrument.

All of the tests that were done fully verify how "Conduction" and “Induction” work. The fact that the glass kept from 53% to 81% of the energy from directly coupling to the body clearly demonstrates the reason why Dr. Rife used a minimum of 50 watts RMS or 100 watts peak power with his ray tube instruments. Though this method of testing does not take everything into consideration it gives us a very close measurement of how much energy directly couples to the body, through “Conduction” when you hold a single ray tube or two hand held ray tubes in your hands.

Some people think that hand held ray tubes using the reversing polarity method do not work like a point source because of the polarity change. Below is the definition of a point source:

"Any point source which spreads its influence equally in all directions without a limit to its range will obey the inverse square law. This comes from strictly geometrical considerations. The intensity of the influence at any given radius is the source strength divided by the area of the sphere. Being strictly geometric in its origin, the inverse square law applies to diverse phenomena. Point sources of gravitational force, electric field, light, sound or radiation obey the inverse square law."

Though the hand held ray tubes do have an intense field between them they also radiate in all directions (360 degrees) like a point source because about 50% of the energy is output from the ray tubes using the "Induction" method. This was easily proven by doing another simple test. Even though the ray tubes were put within two inches of each other, where the intense magnetic field is the strongest, we were easily able to pick up the frequencies broadcasting off the hand held ray tubes 10 feet away with oscilloscope probes. We were also able to easily read the frequencies with a hand held frequency counter. These tests prove that they are also a point source that radiates in all directions. Logically, if they didn't radiate the frequencies out in all directions then they wouldn't be called ray tubes and they also wouldn't work on 53% to 81% "Induction." All ray tubes in one degree or another also work as a point source.

In the "Point Source" definition it also mentioned the “Inverse Square Law.” This law deals with power loss and distance. We will give a simple explanation which should make it so the reader can understand how this law works. If we use 38 watts as an example this is what happens to the power output. At one foot away from the ray tube you would only have 9.5 watts of RF radiant power. At two feet you only have 2.375 watts and at 3 feet you only have 0.59 of one watt of penetrating power from the hand held ray tubes. You can see that the power drops off very quickly when using the "Induction" method of delivering frequencies into the body with a ray tube. Because of this law of physics it is easy to understand that whatever power level is output by the ray tube will never be coupled to the body by “Induction.” What must be considered is there is significant power loss using this method that must be overcome by using more power. Another factor of power loss that also needs to be understood is the energy coming out of the ray tubes is being radiated out in a 360 degree radius. So even if the ray tube is kept close there is significant power loss that must be taken into consideration.

Dr. Rife’s 1930’s/1950’s equipment output 50 to 75 watts RMS or 100 to 150 watts peak power from the plasma ray tube. Let’s compare his power loss to 34 watts. At one foot away from the 50 watt RMS ray tube Dr. Rife had 12.5 watts of radiant power. At two feet he had only 3.125 watts and at 3 feet he only had about 0.78 of one watt. Anyone reading this can understand that the laws of physics are important to understand when understanding power loss with ray tubes. No matter what anyone may think the law of physics applies to ray tubes. And regardless of what may be claimed when you use the no contact "Induction" method of delivering frequencies to the body it does not work the same as having a direct physical connection to the positive and negative terminals. The energy or frequencies are radiated out from the ray tubes and enter the body without directly coupling with the person using them.

Once it is understood how the science of “Induction” really works it is easy to understand the limits of this method unless you use the power levels of Dr. Rife’s 1930/1950’s equipment which used 50 to 75 watts RMS or true power. At the lower power levels of 7.5 to 19 watts RMS a ray tube would be greatly underpowered compared to Dr. Rife’s equipment. Though Dr. Rife used higher power levels he did not drop below about 50 watts once he initially reached this power level.

When both methods of delivering frequencies are understood we find the “Conduction” method of using metal hand cylinders is 50% more efficient than the “Induction” method which uses hand held plasma ray tubes, up to certain power levels. The reason for this is you can put more power directly into the body using metal hand cylinders within certain power ranges. This is due to the fact that the “Conduction” method has no insulators to keep the electrical frequencies from going into the tissue of the body. Metal hand cylinders are like touching bare electrical wires where one is positive and the other is negative. There is nothing to keep the electrical frequencies from going into the body. Because of this “Conduction" or direct contact method more power is transferred into the person even though a frequency generator may be using a lot less power. What we are trying to explain is one method is direct coupling or direct contact with the electrical current and the other is indirect coupling or reduced contact with the electrical current.

All test show that direct coupling or “Conduction” will always work better than indirect coupling “Induction”, within certain distances and power ranges. We have been saying certain power ranges because Dr. Rife’s 1930’s/1950’s equipment used the indirect or "Induction" method with a great deal more power than 38 watts of energy. It used 50 to 75 watts of RMS RF energy. With the “Conduction” method of using hand held metal electrodes more that 15 watts of energy would not be advisable to use in direct contact with the skin. Above this power level a person would want to use at least 50 watts RMS not 7.5 to 19 watts because 19 watts RMS is not enough power for the “Induction” method to work the same as the power levels Dr. Rife used. If you use less power than Dr. Rife used then you want to put the plasma ray tubes right on the body where the problem is located. By doing this they may work better.

Dr. Rife fully understood the limitations of this “Induction” method and this is why he used 50 to 75 watts RMS power levels. At these levels then the “Induction” method of using a ray tube is superior to using hand held metal cylinders. It is all related to power output. The reader should not believe that we are pro one method over the other. Both methods work to deliver frequencies to the body but when you use either method you must have the proper power levels for the specific method used otherwise you will not get the maximum benefit.

Even though some frequency generators only output about 2 or 3 watts RMS using metal hand cylinders they may be equal to most of the hand held ray tube instruments if you measure for the amount of energy that is coupled to the body. When using metal hand cylinders 100% of the energy is directly coupled to the person using it. Now if you move up to Dr. Rife’s 50 to 75 watt range using a ray tube it will be superior to the direct contact method because the frequencies, regardless of tissue and bone, will penetrate all the way through without the resistance of the body affecting the outcome. It is the understanding how “Conduction” and “Induction” works makes it easier to understand the two methods that were use by Dr. Rife, John Crane and John Marsh.

Chapter Summary: Understanding “Conduction” and “Induction” makes it possible to understand how both Ray tube and metal Hand cylinder or footplates work to deliver frequencies. “Conduction” is the direct contact or coupling method which uses metal hand cylinders which use a direct contact with a positive and negative. “Induction” is the plasma ray tube method which is not directly coupled to the body using a positive or a negative. It uses the radiant method of delivering frequencies. Both methods were used by Dr. Rife’s business partners. Dr. Rife preferred the “Induction” method which used 50 to 100 watts of RF energy output through a ray tube. His two business partners, John Crane and John Marsh, built frequency generators that used the “Conduction” method of using metal hand cylinders or disks.