Universal Microscope
Dr. Rife's First Microscope


Principle of Parallel Rays in the Rife Universal Microscope

Principle of Parallel Rays
From John Marsh's papers.


Dr, Royal R. Rife over a period of 30 years designed and built in his own laboratory with five microscopes of power and resolution far beyond the so-called law of optical physics. In their power magnification these instruments vary from 9,000 to 50,000 times, far beyond the limits of the standard research 1nstrumont. The commercial microscope being manufactured today is inadequate for the observation of filterable viruses of disease (as these minute live living entities are less than 1/20 of one micron in dimension). Thus the need for a device which would carry us farther into this important field of endeavor. We will describe in some detail the most powerful of these microscopes, known as the Universal Microscope.

The Universal Microscope, which is the largest and most powerful of the light microscopes, developed in 1933, consists of 5,682 parts. This microscope derives its name from its adaptability to all fields of microscopical work. The microscope is fully equipped with separate sub stage condenser units for transmitted and monochromatic beam, dark-field, polarized, and slit-ultra illumination and includes a special device for crystallography. The entire optical system of lenses and prisms as well as the illuminating units are made of block-crystal quartz.

The illuminating unit used for the examination of the filterable form, of disease organisms contains 14 lenses and prisms, three of which are in the high-intensity incandescent lamp, four in the Risley prism, and seven in the achromatic condenser system. Two circular, wedge-shaped prisms are suspended between the source of light and the specimen being examined. The two prisms are used for changing the angle of incidence of the light passing through the specimen being examined. When the light passes through these prisms, it is divided or split into two beams, one of which is refracted to such an extent that it is reflected to the side of the prism while the second beam is permitted to pass through the prism and illuminate the specimen owing to its chemical constituents.

The mounting arrangement on the universal microscope permits each of the two prisms to be rotated in opposite directions by a vernier control throughout 360 degrees. This vernier adjustment permits bending the transmitted beam of light at variable angles of incidence while, at the same time, a small portion of the spectrum is projected into the axis of the microscope owing to the chemical constituents of the microorganism.
The vernier adjustment permits only a small portion of the spectrum to be visible at any one time, but it is possible to select any portion from one end of the spectrum to the other. When that portion of the spectrum is reached where both the organism and the color band vibrato in exact accord, a definite characteristic spectrum is emitted by the organism.

In the case of the filter-passing form of the Bacillus Typhosus a turquoise blue color is emitted and the plane of polarization deviated plus 4.8 degrees. The predominating chemical constituents of the organism are next ascertained after which the quartz prisms are adjusted by means of the vernier control to minus 4.8 degrees so the opposite angle of refraction may be obtained. A monochromatic beam of light corresponding exactly to the frequency of the organism is then passed through the specimen along with the direct transmitted light. This beam permits the observer to view the organism stained in its true chemical color and reveals its own individual structure in a field which is brilliant with light.

The rays of light refracted by the specimen enter the objective lens and are carried up the tube in parallel rays through 21 (twenty-one) light bonds to the ocular Iens. A tolerance of less than one wave length of visible light is permitted in the core beam of illumination. In the standard optical microscope, the light rays tend to converge as they rise higher and finally cross each other, arriving at the ocular lens, separated by a considerable distance. In the Rife microscopes, as the rays are about to cross each other, a specially designed quartz prism is inserted which servos to separate the light rays to a near parallel line again. Additional prisms are inserted each time the rays are ready to cross.

These prisms, located in the tube, are adjusted and held in adjustment by micrometer screws in special tracks made of magnelium, a metal having the closest expansion coefficient of any metal to quartz. These prisms are separated by a distance of only 30 millimeters. Thus, the greatest distance that the image in the universal microscope is projected through any one media either quartz or air is 30 millimeters instead of the 160 to 190 millimeters employed in the air-filled type of the ordinary microscope.

It is this principle of parallel rays in the Universal Microscope and the resultant shortening of projection distance between any two blocks or prisms plus the fact that objectives can thus be substituted for oculars, these "oculars" being three matched pairs of ten-millimeter, seven-millimeter, and four-millimeter objectives in short mounts, which make possible not only the unusually high magnification and resolution but which serve to eliminate all distortion as well as all chromatic and spherical aberration.

Quartz slides with especially thin quartz cover glasses are used when a tissue section or culture slant is examined, the tissue section itself also being very thin. An additional observational tube and ocular which yield a magnification of 1800 diameters are provided so that that portion of the specimen which it is desired should be examined may be located and so that the observer can adjust himself more readily when viewing a section at a high magnification.

The Universal stage is a double rotating stage graduated through 360 degrees in quarter minute arc divisions, the upper segment carrying the mechanical stage having a movement of 40 degrees, the body assembly which can be moved horizontally over the condenser also having an angular tilt of 40 degrees plus or minus. Heavily constructed joints and screw adjustments maintain rigidity of the microscope which weighs two hundred pounds and stands twenty-four inches high, the bases of the scope being nickel cast-steel plates, accurately surfaced, and equipped with three leveling screws and two spirit levels set at angles of 90 degrees. The coarse adjustment, a block thread screw with forty threads to the inch, slides in a one and one-half dovetail which gibs directly onto the pillar post. The weight of the quadruple nosepiece and the objective system is taken care of by the intermediate adjustment at the top of the body tube. The stage, in conjunction with a hydraulic lift, acts as a lever in operating the fine adjustment. A six-gauge screw having a hundred threads to the inch is worked through a gland into a hollow, glycerin-filled post, the glycerin being displaced and replaced at will as the screw is turned clockwise or anticlockwise, allowing a five-to-one ratio on the lead screw. This, accordingly, assures complete absence of drag and inertia.

The fine adjustment being seven hundred times more sensitive than that of ordinary microscopes, the length of time required to focus the universal ranges up to one hour and a half which, while on first consideration, may seem a disadvantage, is after all but a slight inconvenience when compared with the many years of research and the hundreds of thousands of dollars spent and being spent in an effort to isolate and to look upon disease-causing organisms in their true form.

Working together back in 1931 and using one of the smaller Rife Microscopes having a magnification and resolution of 17,000 diameters, Dr. Rife and Dr. Arthur Isaac Kendall of the Department of Bacteriology of Northwestern University Medical School were able to observe and demonstrate the presence of the filter-passing forms of Bacillus Typhosus. An agar slant culture of the Rawlings strain of Bacillus Typhosus was first prepared by Dr. Kendall and inoculated into six cubic centimeters of "Kendall” K Medium, a medium rich in protein but poor in peptone and consisting of one hundred mg. of dried hog intestine and 6 cc. of tyrode solution (containing neither glucose nor glycerin) which mixture is shaken well so as to moisten the dried intestine powder and then sterilized in the autoclave, fifteen pounds for fifteen minutes, alterations of the medium being frequently necessary depending upon the requirements for different  organisms.

Now, after a period of eighteen hours in this K Medium, the culture was passed through a Berkefeld "W' filter, a drop of the filtrate being added to another six cubic centimeters of K Medium and incubated at 37 degrees centigrade. Forty-eight hours later this same process was repeated, the "N" filter again being used, after which it was noted that the culture no longer responded to peptone medium, growing now only in the protein medium. When again, within twenty-four hours, the culture was passed through a filter - the finest Berkefeld “W” filter, a drop of the filtrate was once more added to six cubic centimeters of K medium and incubated at 37 degrees centigrade, a period of three days elapsing before the culture was transferred to K Medium and yet another three days before a new culture was prepared. When, viewed under an ordinary microscope, these cultures were observed to be turbid and to reveal no bacilli whatsoever. When viewed by means of darkfield illumination and oil immersion lens, however, the presence of small, actively-motile granules was established, although nothing at all of their individual structure could be ascertained.

Another period of four days was allowed to elapse before these cultures were transferred to K Medium and incubated at 37 degrees centigrade for twenty-four hours when they were then examined under the Rife Microscope where, as was mentioned earlier the filterable typhoid bacilli, emitting a blue spectrum, caused the plane of polarization to be deviated plus 4.8 degrees. Then when the opposite angle of refraction was obtained by means of adjusting the polarizing prisms to minus 4.8 degrees and the cultures illuminated by a monochromatic beam coordinated in frequency with the chemical constituents of the typhoid bacillus, small, oval, actively-motile, bright turquoise-blue bodies were observed at a magnification of 5,000 diameters, in high contrast to the colorless and motionless debris of the medium. These observations were repeated eight times, the complete absence of these bodies in uninoculated control K Media also being noted.

To further confirm their findings, Doctors Rife and Kendall next examined eighteen-hour old cultures which had been inoculated into K Medium and incubated at 37 degrees centigrade, since it is just at this stage of growth in this medium and at this temperature that the cultures become filterable. And, just as had been anticipated, ordinary dark-field examination revealed unchanged long, actively-motile bacilli; bacilli having granules within their substance and free-swimming, actively-motile granules; while under the Rife Microscope were demonstrated the same long, unchanged, almost colorless bacilli; bacilli, practically colorless, inside and at one end of which was a turquoise-blue granule resembling the filterable forms of the typhoid bacillus; and free-swimming, small, oval, actively-motile, turquoise-blue granules. By transplanting the cultures of the filter-passing organisms or virus into a broth, they were seen to change over again into their original rod-like forms.
At the same time these findings of Doctors Rife and Kendall were confirmed by Dr. Edward C. Rosenow of the Mayo Foundation, the magnification with accompanying resolution of 8,000 diameters of the Rife Microscope, operated by Dr. Rife, was checked against a darkfield oil immersion scope operated by Kendall and an ordinary 2 mm. oil immersion objective, X 10 ocular, Zeiss scope operated by Dr. Rosenow at a magnification of 900 diameters.

Examinations of gram and safranin stained films of cultures of Bacillus Typhosus, gram and safranin stained films of cultures of the streptococcus from poliomyelitis, and stained films of blood and of the sediment of the spinal fluid from a case of acute poliomyelitis were made with the result that bacilli, streptococci, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and lymphocytes measuring nine times the diameter of the same specimens observed under the Zeiss scope at a magnification and resolution of 900 diameters, were revealed with unusual clarity. Seen under the darkfield microscope were moving bodies presumed to be the filterable turquoise-blue bodies of the typhoid bacillus which, as Dr. Rosenow has declared in his report ("Observations on Filter-Passing Forms of Eberthella Typhi Bacillus Thphosus--and of the streptococcus from Poliomyelitis," Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic, July 13,1932), were so "unmistakably demonstrated" with the Rife Microscope, while under the Zeiss scope stained and hanging drop preparations of clouded filtrate cultures were found to be uniformly negative.

With the Rife Microscope also were demonstrated brownish-gray cocci and diplococci in hanging drop preparations of the filtrates of streptococcus from poliomyelitis. These cocci and diplococci, similar in size and shape to those seen in the cultures although of more uniform intensity, and characteristic of the medium in which they had been cultivated, were surrounded by a clear halo about twice the width of that at the margins of the debris and of the Bacillus Typhosus. Stained films of filtrates and filtrate sediments examined under the Zeiss microscope, and hanging drop, dark-field preparations revealed no organisms, however. Brownish-gray cocci and diplococci of the exact same size and density as those observed in the filtrates of the streptococcus cultures were also revealed in hanging drop preparations of the virus of poliomyelitis under the Rife Microscope, while no organisms at all could be seen in either the stained films of filtrates and filtrate sediments examined with the Zeiss scope nor in hanging drop preparations examined by means of the dark-field. Again using the Rife Microscope at a magnification of 8,000 diameters, numerous non-motile cocci and diplococci of a bright-to-pale pink in color were seen in hanging drop preparations or filtrates of Herpes encephalitic virus. Although these were observed to be comparatively smaller than the cocci and diplococci of the streptococcus and poliomyelitic viruses, they were shown to be of fairly even density, size, and form and surrounded by a halo.

Again, both the darkfield and Zeiss scopes failed to reveal any organisms, and none of the three microscopes disclosed the presence of such diplococci in hanging drop preparations of the filtrate of a normal rabbit brain. Dr. Rosenow has since revealed these organisms with the ordinary microscope at a magnification of 1,000 diameters by means of his special staining method and with the Electron Microscope at a magnification of 12,000 diameters. Dr. Rosenow has expressed the opinion that the inability to see these and other similarly revealed organisms is due, not necessarily to the minuteness of the organisms, but rather to the fact that they are of a non-staining, hyaline structure. Results with the Rife Microscopes, he thinks, are due to the "ingenious methods employed rather than to excessively high magnification." He has declared also, in the report mentioned previously, that “Examination under the Rife Microscope of specimens containing objects visible with the ordinary microscope, leaves no doubt to the accurate visualization of objects or particulate matter by direct observation at the extremely high magnification obtained with this instrument."

Exceedingly high powers of magnification with accompanying high powers of resolution may be realized with all of the Rife Microscopes one of which, having magnification and resolution up to 18,000 diameters, is now being used at the British School of Tropical Medicine in England. In a recent demonstration of another of the smaller Rife scopes (May 16, 1942) before a group of doctors including Dr. J. H. Renner of Santa Barbara, California; Dr. Roger A. Schmidt of San Francisco, California; Dr. Lois Bronson Slade of Alameda, California; Dr. Lucile B. Larkin of Bellingham, Washington; Dr. E. F. Larkin of Bellingham, Washington; and Dr. W. J. Gier of San Diego, California, a Zeiss ruled grading was examined, first under an ordinary commercial microscope equipped with a 1.8 high dry lens and X 10 ocular, and then under the Rife Microscope. Whereas fifty lines were revealed with the commercial instrument and considerable aberration, both chromatic and spherical noted, only five lines were seen with the Rife scope, these five lines being so highly magnified that they occupied the entire field, without any aberration whatsoever being apparent. Dr. Renner, in a discussion of his observations, stated that "The entire field to its very edges and across the center had a uniform clearness that was not true in the conventional instrument." Following the examination of the grading, an ordinary unstained blood film was observed under the same two microscopes. In this instance, one hundred cells were seen to spread throughout the field of the commercial instrument while but ten cells filled the field of the Rife scope.

The Universal Microscope, of course, is the most powerful Rife scope, possessing a resolution of 31,000 diameters and magnification of 60,000 diameters. With this it is possible to view the interior of the "pin point" cells, those cells situated between the normal tissue cells and just visible under the ordinary microscope, and to observe the smaller cells which compose the interior of these pinpoint cells. When one of these smaller cells is magnified, still smaller cells are seen within its structure. And when one of the still smaller cells, in its turn, is magnified, it, too, is seen to be composed of smaller cells. Each of the sixteen times this process of magnification and resolution can be repeated, it is demonstrated that there are smaller cells within the smaller cells, a fact which amply testifies as to the magnification and resolving power obtainable with the Universal Microscope.

More than 20,000 laboratory cultures of carcinoma, were grown and studied over a period of seven years by Dr. Rife and his assistants in what, at the time, appeared to be a fruitless effort to isolate the filter-passing form, or virus, which Dr. Rife believed to be present in this condition. Then, in 1932, the reactions in growth of bacterial cultures to light from the rare gasses was observed, indicating a new approach to the problem. Accordingly, blocks of tissue one-half centimeter square, taken from an unulcerated breast carcinoma, were placed in triple-sterilized K Medium and these cultures incubated at 37 degrees centigrade. When no results were forthcoming, the culture tubes were placed in a circular glass loop filled with argon gas to a pressure of fourteen millimeters, and a current of 5,000 volts applied for twenty-four hours, after whichthe tubes were placed in a two inch water vacuum and incubated at 37 degrees centigrade for twenty-four hours. UsJ.ng a specially designed 1.12 dry lens, equal in amplitude of magnification to the 2 mm. apochromatic oil immersion lens, the cultures were then examined under the Universal Microscope, at a magnification of 10,000 diameters, where very-much animated, purplish-red, filterable forms measuring less than one-twentieth of a micron in dimension were observed. Carried through fourteen transplants from K Medium to K Medium, this B.X. virus remained constant; inoculated into four hundred and twenty-six Albino rats, tumors "with all the true pathology of neoplastic tissue" were developed.

Experiments conducted in the Rife Laboratories have established the fact that these characteristic diplococci arefound in the blood monocytes in 92 per cent of all cases of neoplastic diseases. It has also been demonstrated that the virus of cancer, like the viruses of other diseases, can be easily changed from one form to another by means of altering the media upon which it is grown. With the first change in media, the B.X. virus becomes considerably enlarged although its purplish-red color remains unchanged. Observation of the organism with an ordinary microscope is made possible by a second alteration of the media. A third change is undergone upon asparagus base media where the B.X. virus is transformed from its filterable state into cryptomyces pleomorphia fungi, these fungi being identical morphologically both macroscopically and microscopically to that of the orchid and of the mushroom. And yet a fourth change may be said to take place when this cryptomyces pleomorphia, permitted to stand as a stock culture for the period of metastasis, becomes the well-known mahogany-colored Bacillus Coli.

It is Dr. Rife's belief that all microorganisms fall into one of not more than ten individual groups (Dr. Rosenow has stated that some of the viruses belong to the group of the streptococcus) and that any alteration of artificial media or slight metabolic variation in tissues will induce an organism of one group to change over into any other organism included in that same group, it being possible, incidentally, to carry such changes in media or tissues to the point where the organisms fail to respond to standard laboratory methods of diagnosis. These changes can be made to take place in as short a period of time as forty-eight hours. For instance, by altering the media--four parts per million per volume-- the pure culture of mahogany-colored Bacillus Coli becomes the turquoise-blue Bacillus Typhosus. Viruses or primordial cells of organisms which would ordinarily require an eight-week incubation period to attain their filterable state, have been shown to produce disease within three days time, proving Dr. Rife's contention that the incubation period of a microorganism is really only a cycle of reversion. He states: "In reality, it is not the bacteria themselves that produce the disease, but we believe it is the chemical constituents of these microorganisms enacting upon the unbalanced cell metabolism of the human body that in actuality produce the disease. We also believe if the metabolism of the human body is perfectly balanced or poised it is susceptible to no disease."

In other words, the human body itself is chemical in nature, being comprised of many chemical elements which provide the media upon which the wealth of bacteria normally present in the human system feed. These bacteria are able to reproduce. They, too, are composed of chemicals. Therefore, if the media upon which they feed, in this instance the chemicals or some portion of the chemicals of the human body, becomes changed from the normal, it stands to reason that these same bacteria, or at least certain numbers of them, will also undergo a change chemically since they are now feeding upon a media which is not normal to them, perhaps being supplied with too much or too little of what they need to maintain a normal existence. They change, passing usually through several stages of growth, emerging finally as some entirely new entity--as different morphologically as are the caterpillar and the butterfly (to use an illustration given us). The majority of the viruses have been definitely revealed as living organisms, foreign organisms it is true, but which once were normal inhabitants of the human body--living entities of a chemical nature or composition.

Under the Universal Microscope disease organisms such as those of tuberculosis, cancer, sarcoma, streptococcus, typhoid, staphlococcus, leprosy, hoof and mouth disease, and others may be observed to succumb when exposed to certain lethal frequencies, coordinated with the particular frequencies peculiar to each individual organism, and directed upon them by rays covering a wide range of waves.

By means of a camera attachment and a motion picture camera not built into the instrument, many "still" micrographs as well as hundreds of feet of motion picture film bear witness to the complete life cycles of numerous organisms. It should be emphasized, perhaps, that invariably the same organisms refract the same colors when stained by means of the monochromatic beam of illumination on the Universal Microscope, regardless of the media upon which they are grown. The virus of the Bacillus Typhosus is always a turquoise-blue, the Bacillus Coli always mahogany-colored, the Mycobacterium Ii prae always a ruby shade, the filter-passing form of virus of tuberculosis always an emerald green, the virus of cancer always a purplish-red, and so on. Thus, with the aid of this microscope, it is possible to reveal the typhoid organism, for instance, in the blood of a suspected typhoid patient four and five days before a Widal is positive. When it is desired to observe the flagella of the typhoid organism, Hg salts are used as the media to see at a magnification of 10,000 diameters.
In the light of the amazing results obtainable with this Universal Microscope and its smaller brother-scopes, there can be no doubt of the ability of these instruments to actually reveal any and all microorganisms according to their individual structure and chemical constituents.

With the aid of its new eyes--the new microscopes, all of which are continually being improved--Science has at last penetrated beyond the boundary of accepted theory and into the world of the viruses with the result that we can look forward to discovering new treatments and methods of combating the deadly organisms--for Science does not rest.

One or the most important questions in the minds of those who come in contact with the RIFE FREQUENCY INSTRUMENTS is: Why doesn’t the frequency or coordinative resonance in tune with the microorganism destroy the cell in which it lives? The answer is this: Because the chemicals making up the human cell are not of the same constituency as the microorganism; therefore, the power of the instrument designed to devitalize the microorganism only is a great deal less in power than would be necessary to devitalize a human cell, mainly because the frequency number is different. For example: many automobiles today appear in different shapes and sizes and powers. The power produced by a smaller car is perhaps a fraction of the power produced by a larger car, even though they are all cars. Similarly, the microorganism lives within the cell, which perhaps contains the same chemicals of which the microorganism is made, but each has different molecular structural quantities. Thus, the microorganism is devitalized and the area in which it lived is unaffected by this coordinative resonance.

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