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The Rife Machine Report

Chapter #17

The "Skin Effect" Myth
and Rife's Frequencies

Skin Effect

The "Skin Effect" is real but how it pertains to human tissue when using Dr. Rife's frequencies is the "Myth." The "Myth" is; there is no difference between the body and a metal wire when it comes to using Dr. Rife's range of frequencies with "Pads" or electrodes.

Because of this misunderstanding there has been a great deal of debate as to whether Dr. Rife's frequencies can penetrate the human or animal skin via metal electrodes or hand cylinders. As far as it can be determined this "Skin Effect" myth was started by people who only believe that a plasma ray tube could deliver Dr. Rife's frequencies. In their attempt to persuade prospective customers from purchasing frequency generators, which use metal hand cylinders and footplates, they use the misinterpretation of the “Skin Effect” to try and convince people to only purchase ray tube instruments.

So the reader can understand what the “Skin Effect" really is we will give the scientific definition as explained by modern science. We quote:

SKIN EFFECT: “Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, and decreases with greater depths in the conductor. The electric current flows mainly at the "skin" of the conductor, between the outer surface and a level called the skin depth. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller, thus reducing the effective cross-section of the conductor. The skin effect is due to opposing eddy currents induced by the changing magnetic field resulting from the alternating current. At 60 Hz in copper, the skin depth is about 8.5 mm. At high frequencies the skin depth becomes much smaller. Increased AC resistance due to the skin effect can be mitigated by using specially woven litz wire. Because the interior of a large conductor carries so little of the current, tubular conductors such as pipe can be used to save weight and cost.”

Anyone who carefully reads this scientific description can see that this definition of the “Skin Effect” deals with how electricity flows mostly near the outer surface of a solid electrical conductor, such as a metal wire. You will notice that this definition does not discuss any human skin or tissue. This is due to the fact that the human body is not made of conductive metal like a copper wire. It is also not a faraday cage. A faraday cage is made of metal and can keep frequencies from getting out or getting in depending on how it is used.

Only if human skin was conductive metal would this definition of the “Skin Effect” apply to it within the frequency range that Dr. Rife Used. Dr. Rife used frequencies up to about 20 million Hertz (20 MHz or Megahertz) or cycles per second. The "Skin Effect" does apply to the body but only with frequencies that are much higher than those Dr. Rife used. We will discuss this frequency range later in this article.

The problem is people are reading this "Skin Effect" definition and when they see the word “Skin Effect” they believe that this scientific definition is referring to human skin because of the use of the word "skin." Because of the word skin they have misunderstood the true definition of the “Skin Effect” and how it applies to a metal conductor. Yet, people misquote this definition and use it to describe how electrical current affects human skin including biological tissue even within the frequency range that Dr. Rife used on microorganisms.

Today those who misquote the "Skin Effect" generally heard about it by word of mouth from someone else. This incorrect understanding just keeps getting spread because people tend to believe what they are told rather than checking out the science for themselves. These misinformed people do not understand that scientific studies called “Bio-electrical impedancemetry" or "Bio-electrical lmpedance Analysis” tests have been done which show how electrical frequencies travel through human skin or tissue. These tests scientifically prove that the “Skin Effect” of a metal wire does not apply to human or animal skin or tissue within the frequency ranges Dr. Rife used. In fact it does not pertain to frequency ranges that are much higher than those used by Dr. Rife.

Now this incorrect interpretation has gone a step further and there are some people who believe the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect” also applies to ray tubes also. Here are two good examples of what people are writing because they do not understand the true “Skin Effect” definition. The first quote reveals they do not understand the correct meaning of the “Skin Effect.” The second quote reveals that they believe a ray tube using an RF carrier frequency, like Dr. Rife used, will not work due to the “Skin Effect.” For this reason they only use an audio frequency for a carrier frequency. We quote:

Quote 1: "The higher the frequency, the shallower the penetration. At frequencies above 1 MHz, skin effect will limit penetration to a fraction of an inch."

Quote 2: Because of the skin effect we now preset the carrier at about 45,000 Hz. Much research has been done proving that the higher the frequency, the more the current follows the outside of the body. Thus it is referred to as the skin effect.”

It can seen by these two quotes that the whole misunderstanding of the “Skin Effect” has gone from bad to worse. If the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect” was true then Dr. Rife would have never been able to accomplish what he did in devitalizing microorganisms with frequencies. This kind of incorrect understanding defies all logic and reasonable understanding.  

Because of all of this conflicting information the only way to get a correct understanding of how electrical frequencies penetrate animal or human tissue we must go to the experts in this field who have done the scientific tests which reveal the truth. In this field there have been many tests done and they are called “Bio-electrical impedancemetry or Bio-electrical impedance Analysis (B.I.A.).” The reader can look these tests up on the internet. They are somewhat difficult to understand if you do not have a good understanding of how electricity works. But they all confirm the fact that frequencies will pass through human skin and travel deep into the body with the use of hand held ray tubes, metal electrodes or pads if the proper methods are used. What these scientific tests do prove is there is no such thing as the metal conductor “Skin Effect” when it comes to Human Skin or tissue within the frequency range that Dr. Rife used. These tests are quite lengthy and we cannot include all of them here in this chapter but we are providing the link below to one such scientific “Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis” report which will only take 10 or 15 minutes to read. This scientific report has simple explanations given at the end of each section, in layman’s terms, describing how frequencies penetrate biological tissue. These simple explanations are in blue type and explain to the reader the meaning of what has been discussed in that section.

This scientific report also has many descriptive diagrams showing how frequencies move through biological tissue such as human skin. This specific report was once on the internet several years ago but the author is unknown. The information contained in this report is not new and was taken from the work of Auguste Louis Thomasset. Click on the link below and read this scientific report:

The "Skin Effect" and Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis

This report should be read when reading this chapter. Understanding how frequencies go through biological tissue is the foundation of understanding how Dr. Rife accomplished his discoveries on devitalizing microorganisms. Without this foundation you can be mislead by the incorrect understanding of the “Skin Effect."

We will assume that the reader took the time to read this report. In simple terms this report shows that the incorrect description of the “Skin Effect” when it is applied to Dr. Rife's frequencies is scientifically incorrect and that the body is not a faraday cage. This scientific report shows there are limits to frequency penetration depending on whether a low frequency (5,000 Hertz) is used or a high frequency (1,000,000 Hertz or 1 MHz) is used. These limits only apply to human cell penetration not skin penetration.

Since Thomasset did his initial tests over 50 years ago there have been many more Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis tests done. These tests have been more extensive and have narrowed down the frequency ranges for cell penetration better than Thomasset's initial test. At a December 12-14, 1994 National Institutes of Health Technology Conference the following statements were made about frequency penetration. We quote:

First quote: "It is commonly assumed that a 50-kHz (50,000 Hertz) signal penetrates cell membranes and freely passes through all fluids. Unfortunately, this assumption is known to be false."

Second quote: "The electrical current passing through the body is primarily limited to electrolyte solutions; therefore, the only direct biological parameter measureable by BIA [Bio-Impedance Analysis] is related to the body's water content.  At low frequencies (e.g., 1 kHz [1000 Hertz]), cell membranes impede [Stop] current flow through the intracellular space [Inside cells], whereas no such barriers limit extracellular (Space or connective tissue in between the cells) current flow. However, at higher frequencies (e.g., 100 kHz [100,000 Hertz]), the signal penetrates cell membranes and passes through all fluids [All connective tissue and cells]."  

To read this complete report click here. (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Body Composition Measurement. National Institutes of Health, Technology Assessment Conference Statement, December 12-14, 1994).

This report shows that low frequencies (1 to 50,000 Hertz) will enter the body but only go through the connective tissue around the cells. Where high frequencies (100,000 Hertz and higher) will enter the body and go through the connective tissue and even penetrate the cells of the body. These additional Bio-Impedance tests show that a much lower frequency than 1 MHz (1,000,000 Hertz) will penetrate the cells of the body. Because of Thomasset's initial tests it was believed that a 1 MHz (1,000,000 Hertz) RF carrier frequency was needed when using frequencies below about 500,000 Hertz. With these new test reports we find that only frequencies below 100,000 Hertz really need to be used with a carrier frequency for full cell penetration. This indicates that a carrier frequency of 100,000 Hertz or higher could be used. The benefit of a 1 MHz or higher carrier frequency is that there is no resistance to the flow of the frequency through the tissues of the body.

All of these Bio-impedance reports show why it is necessary to use an RF or radio carrier frequency of at least 100,000 Hertz or higher when using low audio frequencies for full cell penetration. Audio frequencies are generally considered to be from 1 Hertz to about 50,000 Hertz which means there is no cell penetration. But as the frequencies go up from 50,000 to 100,000 Hertz cell penetration increases until at 100,000 Hertz full cell penetration is achieved.

It should be pointed out that these reports only deal with sine wave frequencies. All of the low audio frequencies (1 to 50,000 Hertz) that are used with Rife Technology are usually used with the square wave waveform. This waveform produces a great deal of square wave harmonics that can go high enough in the frequency range to have significant cell penetration even without an RF carrier frequency. When put on a spectrum analyzer the square wave harmonics drop off with each higher harmonic so that by the 9th harmonic the power is so minimal as to not be very significant. This indicates that frequencies below about 10,000 Hertz, even using the square wave waveform, probably would not have any significant cell penetration. When frequencies above 10,000 Hertz are used the higher harmonics of these frequencies could have full cell penetration.

These Bio-impedance tests now explain why Dr. Rife, when using sine wave frequencies, had full tissue and cell penetration with all of his frequencies which he used on the various microorganisms. His lowest RF frequency was 139,200 Hertz and this was for the Anthrax microorganism. Below is a chart which was taken from the Radio Frequency Radiation Dosimetry Handbook, page 60. This chart shows how deep frequencies will penetrate.

Skin depth Graph

Dr. Rife also did tissue penetration tests with his machine to make sure that they would devitalize the microorganisms in the body. When they were testing the Rife Ray #4 horse meat was used. To read about this test conducted with the Rife Ray #4 click on the following link.

Rife Ray #4 horse meat penetration test

The chart shown above shows that the frequencies Dr. Rife found for the various microorganism are in the highest frequency penetration ranges. Dr. Rife used at least 50 watts RMS power with his ray tube machines. All of the scientific tests show that power and penetration are directly connected. The greater the power the greater the penetration into the tissue and cells of the body. Metal hand cylinder or "Pad" type machines vary in their power output ranges. Those "Pad" type frequency generators that have the higher power output ranges will penetrate deeper into the tissues of the body than those who use lower power ranges.

Most frequency generators only have about 1/5th of one watt power output. The reason for this is due to the fact that power levels higher than this will begin to cause the muscles to contract and lock up when using very low audio frequencies (1 Hertz to about 20,000 Hertz). The only way to overcome this limitation is to use an RF carrier frequency. Using an RF carrier frequency above 100,000 Hertz accomplishes three things. First, it overcomes the bodys ability to feel the frequencies and keeps the muscles from contracting and locking up. Second, it makes it so low audio frequencies (10,000 Hertz or less) can penetrate the cells. Three, it allows for power levels up to 150 times greater than the 1/5th of one watt power limitation that non-RF frequency generators have.

Because of these facts it would be wise to use an RF carrier frequency of at least 100,000 Hertz with all audio frequencies even if they are used with the square wave waveform.

In another scientific paper entitled “Absorption of RF Radiation” which was published by Harvard for their education courses we quote the following:

“Penetration depth is defined as the distance in which the power density decreases by a factor of e^-2 (13.5 percent), and is a function of frequency and tissue properties. At higher frequencies, fields penetrate much less than at lower frequencies. For example, at 2.45 GHz (microwave oven frequency), penetration depth in tissue is about 2.0 cm, while at 10 GHz, it is about 0.4 cm. At higher frequencies, any heating that occurs is primarily surface heating. Penetration depth for fat and bone is nearly five times greater than for higher-water-content tissues. At frequencies between 300 and 3000 MHz, electromagnetic energy can penetrate into more deeply situated tissues, making it especially desirable for therapeutic applications.

The frequency of maximal absorption is called the resonance frequency (for humans it is between 70 and 100 MHz), and depends on orientation with respect to the incident field. In general, the rule is that the shorter the subject, the higher the resonance frequency, and vice versa.”

Harvard report: Absorption of RF Radiation link

From this quote we find that you have to be up into the Gigahertz range of frequencies to have a true “Skin Effect” like a metal conductor with human skin and tissue. These scientific tests show that frequencies within Dr. Rife's frequency range do not travel on the surface of the human skin as people promoting the incorrect “Skin Effect” myth have claimed. We find from this report that even at the 300 to 3000 MHz range the frequencies will penetrate into more deeply situated tissues especially desirable for therapeutic applications. Last of all we find that frequencies between 70 and 100 MHz (70 to 100 million Hertz) are of maximum absorption in humans. These scientific reports completely dispel the “Skin Effect” myth that human tissue is the same as a metal conductor. 

Dr. Rife worked with frequencies from the audio range up to about 20 MHz (20 million Hertz). This range of frequencies is very low compared to the 70 to 3000 MHz range. These reports show that there is no “Skin Effect” in any of these ranges especially below 100 MHz. These reports clearly show that the “Skin Effect” which is being promoted and taught by many connected to Rife technology is not correct.

After you have read all of these reports you will find the real question that should be considered is: What is the Cell Effect? These scientific reports confirm that frequencies do pass through the human skin into the tissue of the body, using electrodes, as long as the proper methods are used. We also find that there is no “Skin Effect” with ray tubes within Dr. Rife's frequency range.

Hopefully this information we have given will help overcome all the false and incorrect information that is being promoted as the metal “Skin Effect” for human tissue.

Chapter Summary: The current misunderstanding of the “Skin Effect” as it relates to human skin or tissue is not correct. Whether frequencies come from a ray tube or metal hand cylinders they penetrate the skin and enter the tissue of the body even up to 70 to 3000 MHz. Low audio frequencies and frequencies up to about 100,000 Hertz should be used with an RF carrier frequency for full cell penetration.